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PostSubject: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:38 am

Some last minute help that ahsan mostly made and i assisted, helped, and advised on via email and xbox live O.O

Warning 2 of the CSW are not present #23 #24

These have The Thesis, Main Topic, Details, Facts, Examples, BLAH!
Do not include: Conclusion, Conclusion paragraph
These two can be made via topic sent and beginning paragraph

If you want peace you must be prepared for war!

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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:45 am

Surprise!!!!!! Gene and i created these outlines that contain the thesis, topic sentences, and facts. Have fun studying all night!!! Sorry if there are any mistakes regarding grammar or if there are typos, because i did not have the time to read over them and edit and correct any mistakes.

Core Structure Worksheet # 17

A. Thesis: “In seventeenth-century England the aristocracy lost its privileges but retained its power; in seventeenth-century France the aristocracy retained its privileges, but lost its power.” This statement is not fully accurate, because it does not correctly state the situation that was occurring within England during the seventeenth century. The English aristocracy was gaining additional power, instead of just retaining its original power. However, the statement regarding France was accurate; the aristocracy, of France lost its power but it was able to maintain its various privileges. The political events and social developments within each of these countries did have adverse effects regarding the course of development that the aristocracies of these two distinct countries took. In the country of France the aristocracy was able to retain its privileges event though its power was intensely reduced. The aristocracy of England saw its power generally increase throughout the course of the seventeenth century, but it did not receive any special privileges from their monarch similar to that of France.

1. The aristocracy of England, the Parliament, saw a significant increase in its power throughout the course of the seventeenth century due to various political events and social developments of the time.

· 1. The aristocracy of England was involved in the Parliament, and therefore they were able to gain hold of a large amount of power.

· 2. The increased education of the gentry had created a more knowledgeable and successful House of Commons, and their extensive knowledge aided them in argue with the absurd ideas of the king regarding the divine right of kings. They had an increased knowledge regarding medieval precedents and they would not easily be fooled by the kings. This was a prime example of how the gentry reacted to Charles I’s ideas of absolutism during his reign.

· 3. The gentry that comprised the House of Commons were wealthy landowners, and they were commercially successful. This can be examined in their transition from middle-class individuals to upper class individuals.

· 4. During the time of the Long Parliament, Charles I desperately in need of money after the Scottish invasion, agreed to the various terms of the Parliament, which included the following: parliament not being allowed to be dissolved without their own consent, the triennial act, ship money being abolished, the leaders of the persecution of Puritans being tried and executed, the star chamber being abolished, common law courts becoming supreme to the king’s courts, and parliament refusing to raise an army to defeat the Irish revolt. This event allowed Parliament to inherent a significant amount of power.

· 5. After the conclusion of the English Civil War, Charles I was beheaded by the consent of the House of Commons (Rump Parliament), and this was a blow to the theory of divine rights of king. This symbolizes that the nobility had gained power, because they were able to execute a king. This was the first time with Europe that a king was executed by his own people.

· 6. During the time of Restoration, Parliament invited the king, Charles II, to return to the throne and reestablish the rule of the Stuarts. Parliament was capable of basically appointing a king, and therefore was stronger in relation to the king than ever before in England.

· 7. The Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus Act in 1679, and this limited the power of Charles II. By limiting the power of Charles II they were able to secure more power for themselves. This act provided a speedy trial and did not allow the occurrence of double jeopardy.

· 8. During the period of the Glorious Revolution the Parliament was successfully able to remove their current king, James II, and invite a new ruler, William of Orange, to the English throne. Parliament was now sovereign, and in order to protect their rights the developed the Bill of Rights. England now operated under a constitutional monarchy, and the power of the king was drastically reduced.

2. During the seventeenth century the French aristocracy, was awarded with an increased amount of privileges, but the aristocracy within England did not receive unique privileges from the monarch.

· 1. The Versailles Palace was also a place where the nobility was treated with prestige and honor. They received various privileges that included recreational activities such as, tournaments, hunts, and concerts, and elaborate theatrical performances.

· 2. Louis separated the idea of power from status and grandeur, and therefore he was able to secure the noble’s cooperation. The noble’s enjoyed the status and grandeur in which the lived in.

· 3. The “nobility of the robe” was given the opportunity to purchase positions and titles from the monarchy.

· 4. Within England the idea of a constitutional monarchy existed, and a struggle for power between the Stuart monarchs and Parliament constantly occurred. The Stuart monarchs always wanted to reduce the power of Parliament, and they were never at peace with Parliament. As a result, the monarchs did not grant the aristocracy with any significant privileges. Political conflicts between the king and Parliament did not allow for any privileges to develop for the aristocracy.

· 5. This English Parliament, the aristocracy, did not hold any significant place within the society of England. For example, their position did not earn them a considerable place in society, and they were only considered to be “respected” members of the society.

· 6. The English aristocracy was expected to pay the taxes of England.

3. The French aristocracy had its power reduced and limited due to the political events and social developments of the seventeenth century.

· 1. Under the ruling of Henry IV, the old “nobility of the sword” was restricted from influencing the royal councils.

· 2. The Intendant system created under Cardinal Richelieu was designed in order to weaken the strength of the nobility.

· 3. The Fronde caused Louis XIV to dislike the demanding nobility, and he never forgot his emotionally scarring experiences as a child with the nobility. As a result he wanted he wanted to reduce the power of the nobility, and therefore he recruited his chief ministers from the middle class. This removed the aristocracy from the government.

· 4. The Versailles Palace eventually became a pleasure prison for the French nobility; Louis forced the nobility to reside within the palace for a certain part of the year. Louis was able to watch over them, and thus reduce their power. Louis was able to gain an absolute control over the nobility.

· 5. Louis IV never called a meeting of the Estates General, and the nobility was unable to express their thoughts and actions. This inflicted damage to the power of the nobility, and thus increased the power of Louis.

· 6. The new nobility that was arising, the “nobility of the robe,” was purchasing titles from the noble, and this caused them to remain loyal to the monarch, thus increasing the monarch’s power.

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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:48 am

Core Structure Worksheet # 18

A. Thesis: During the seventeenth century, England and Netherlands developed effective capitalist economies, while Span did not. The economies of the Netherlands and England developed differently from that of Spain due to a variety of factors. During the seventeenth century, England had become a strong nation that was able to support itself, and as a result of various religious, political, and economic reasons it was able to develop a powerful capitalist economy. In the Netherlands, the ideas regarding economy combined with the religious and social, and political aspects caused the Netherlands to form an effective capitalist economy during the seventeenth century. Spain was currently declining during the seventeenth century, because it was in a state of current chaos and unrest, and as a result of this it was not able to form an effective capitalist economy.

1. During the seventeenth century, the nation of England was able to develop a successful capitalist economy due to the various religious, political and economic factors.

a. The Commercial Revolution had considerably increased the size of the middle-class of England. The middle-class had a great role in the exemplified economy of the English.

b. The Parliament was given the right to vote on taxes, and this created a better structured system for taxation.

c. Even though there was mercantilism at a minor scale, merchants were basically given the freedom to invest their profits for more profits, and this factor aided England in developing its capitalism.

d. There was no social stigma to paying taxes in England, and the House of Commons did not have any problem in paying the taxes. The taxes were distributed equally, because the peasants were not the only ones condemned to pay taxes, as in France.

e. Many of the people residing within England were Calvinist and Protestant, thus they were influenced by the Protestant work ethic. The people were devoted to working, because they wanted to produce a significant amount of money in order to show that they were the elect.

f. As England became more commercial banking developed within England, and in 1694 the Bank of England was established. This made it easier to loan and lend money to the people of England.

g. In 1601, the English Poor Law was established, and this law helped to end the extremely impoverished state that same people were in.

2. During the seventeenth century, the Netherlands created an effective capitalist economy by relating religious and social, and political factors to their economy.

a. The Dutch were tolerant regarding the aspect of religion, and they allowed a variety of religions to exist within their confederation. This aided in the development of the economy in the Netherlands.

b. The Dutch had a well-structured banking system that allowed for a systematic method of lending money. They Dutch offered extremely low interest rates, and this allowed their bank to prosper.

c. The fishing of herring was the cornerstone of the Dutch economy, and it helped to stimulate their ship-building.

d. The Dutch offered the lowest shipping rates throughout Europe.

e. Trade and commerce brought the country a considerable amount of wealth, and as a result of this they were able to develop the highest standard of living in Europe.

f. The Netherlands became the greatest mercantile nation of the 17th century.

g. The Protestant work ethic influenced the ideas of the people, which caused them to work intensely in order to produce more money. John Calvin’s ideas of working vigorously in order to produce a large amount of wealth were applied.

h. The Dutch rulers were prosperous and wealthy merchants and financers, who had values that supported the middle-class to a great extent. The economy prospered as a result of the government’s involvement in such a way.

3. Throughout the course of the seventeenth century, Spain’s condition was declining due to the chaos and turmoil within the country, and this combined with the deteriorating social and religious, political, and economical factors in Spain resulted in the inability of Spain to establish an effective capitalist economy.

a. The country of Spain had been heavily reliant on the flow of gold and silver from the New World, but when the flow of the gold and silver decreased the economy of Spain was impacted negatively.

b. There was no Protestant work ethic, because the people of Spain were intensely Catholic. The Catholics believed that the most praised position included those of priests, monks, and nuns.

c. The public opinion that was formed mainly by the aristocracy stated that moneymaking was crude and improper.

d. That Spanish nation ignored the newly formulated mercantile ideas because they were produced in the heretical nations of France and England.

e. Spain got involved in various wars that it lacked the funding to pay.

f. Spain had virtually no middle-class that could support the weakening economy, because many of the people pursued religious careers, such as that of monks, priest, and nuns. The execution by the Inquisition of the Jews and Moors also played a role in this, because the inquisition had greatly reduced the numbers of the middle-class in the relative past.

g. The government of Spain declared bankruptcy and cancellation of debt numerous times, and the public lost its trust of the government.

h. The Hapsburg rulers were not positive rulers, and the inbreeding within the family had caused the rulers to become excessively unintelligent. They were not capable of making strong political and economical decisions that the country severely required during this time of hardship. They were not willing to reform or better the declining and deteriorating Spanish state.
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:48 am

Core Structure Worksheet # 19

A. Thesis: The role of Parliament in English politics changed considerably between the succession of James I and the Glorious Revolution. Parliament gradually and steadily gained power during the succession of James I and the Glorious Revolution. Between the reigns of James I and Charles I, two Stuart monarchs, it can be examined that Parliament did not have a significant amount of power. However, between the succession of the Civil War and the reign of Charles II it can be seen that Parliament had amounted more power when compared to previous times. Between the reign of James II and the occurrence of the Glorious Revolution it can be stated that Parliament had gained sovereignty, and the question regarding the matter of whether the king would come to hold sovereignty or Parliament would, had been completely and fully answered.

1. During the reigns of James I and Charles I it can be stated that Parliament did not have a significant amount of power regarding English politics.

a. James I believed in the divine right of kings, and did not wish for the Parliament to have a say in the government, and he even lectured the House of Commons regarding his personal belief of the divine right of kings. His son Charles I would also follow in his father’s footsteps by choosing to believe in the divine right of kings.

b. Throughout his reign James I dissolved Parliament twice over the issues regarding taxation and parliamentary demands.

c. During his reign, Charles I also behaved in ways similar to that of his father, James. He himself would dissolve Parliament in 1629, because they were trying to gain basic rights as seen in the Petition of Rights. Parliament had also continuously been trying to refuse the increased taxation without its consent, and parliament was also arguing that any movement to the government toward Catholicism and Arminianism should be punished as treason. He was a firm believer in the divine right of kings, and he did not want to give Parliament any powerful role within the government.

d. Charles I would eventually rule from 1629 to 1640, in a time period that would become known as the “Thorough.” During his rule without Parliament he resembled an absolute monarch. Parliament would not have any say in the way the government would be run during this time period. Charles I himself would impose taxes and enforce his own laws and rules regarding various matters.

e. The “Short Parliament” during the year of 1640 would experience a similar doom that Parliament had recently faced in 1629, and it would again be dissolved by Charles I for demanding the rights from the Petition of Rights.

f. Charles I would only come to agree with the demands of the “long Parliament” in 1640 due to his frantic and desperate need for money, and this shows how Charles I considered to be only a last resort.

g. Charles I would eventually come to wage war against his enemies in Parliament, during 1642 in order to basically increase his power and reduce that of Parliament.

2. The time period involving the succession of the Civil War and Charles II it can be noted that Parliament was able to gain more power, but its power was not yet sovereign.

a. After the end of the civil war it was the House of Commons (Rump Parliament) that eventually came to a decision to execute Charles I. It can be considered that since Parliament executed a king they had gained power. Charles I was the first king in Europe to be executed by his own subjects.

b. Parliament gained further power after the interregnum, when they themselves allowed Charles II to return to the throne.

c. Charles II agreed to follow Parliament’s decisions and demands, and therefore the king was no longer absolute.

d. The Parliament was now stronger in regard to the king than ever before in the history of England.

e. Parliament passed the Test Act of 1673, which prevented those not loyal to the Church of England to practice their basic rights, such as voting, holding office preaching, teaching, attending universities, or assembling meetings.

f. In 1679 Parliament passed the Habeas Corpus act, and this limited the power of the monarch in various ways. The people were to go through speedy trials when they were acquitted of crimes, and double jeopardy was forbidden.

g. Parliament, after learning that Catholicism may once again sweep the lands of England due to the inheritance of the throne by James II, tried to pass a bill that would deny any Catholic heir from assuming the English throne. Parliament was quickly dissolved by Charles II for trying to make this bill law. This event explicates how Parliament had still not gained sovereignty, and that the king still had a substantial amount of power.

Between the reign of James II and the occurrence of the Glorious Revolution, Parliament was able to establish its sovereignty, and had definitely enforced the concepts of constitutionalism.

a. When James II established his rule he had the intentions of reverting England toward Catholicism. In a final and desperate attempt to disallow England becoming an absolute monarchy and the spread of Catholicism within the nation, Parliament compelled James II to abdicate his throne. The throne was passed to William of Orange and his wife Marry (James’s daughter), who wore solely appointed by the Parliament.

b. The Glorious Revolution was the final struggle for sovereignty that Parliament would experience, thus it was extremely beneficial for Parliament.

c. By basically appointing the rulers of the throne, William and Marry, Parliament drastically increased its power over the rulers.

d. Parliament created the Bill of Rights, and William and Marry agreed to the terms. The Bill of Rights included various term such as the right of free speech for Parliament, taxation without Parliament’s consent was illegal, kings could not be a Roman Catholic, standing armies were not allowed in peace time without Parliament’s consent, and laws could not be constructed without the decision of parliament.

e. As a result of the Glorious Revolution the power mainly stayed within the hands of the nobility and gentry for a considerable amount of time to come.

f. The Parliament represented the people of the upper class, and therefore parliament was able to confine these new powers to themselves without having to share them with the commoners (the middle-class and the peasantry).
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:49 am

Core Structure Worksheet # 20

A. Thesis: Louis XIV made known his goals of “one king, one law, one faith,” and he used a variety of methods in order to achieve his main objective. He was rather successful in most of his methods. He had a considerable amount of success in most of the methods and practices that he exercised, and he was successful in creating an absolutist state that displayed his considerable power. In order to achieve the idea of “one king”, Louis fully established the idea that he, Louis XIV, was the absolute monarch of France. Louis had a specific organization of the government, and he constructed the structure of the government in such a way that would allow him to achieve his goal of “one law.” Louis also enforced various religious policies that aided him in developing his idea of “one faith” throughout France.

1. Louis XIV became the absolute monarch of France, and he fully endorsed his idea of one king, in which he was successful.

a. Louis fashioned the idea that sovereignty of the state lied within the ruler. For example, he stated that “I am the state.”

b. He was a devout believer in the divine right of kings, which during this time was greatly endorsed by Bishop Bossuet.

c. Louis became known as the “Sun King” because he was thought to be at the center of the French power.

d. He destroyed the liberties that were long held be certain individuals, groups, or provinces.

e. Louis maintained a permanent standing army that remained deployed even during times of peace.

f. Louis alone chose the members of the army, and he stationed the soldiers inside and outside the country in ways that benefited him most.

g. He used new methods of compulsion, such as a secret police, and he took notice in the private lives of subjects who could be a possible threat to his power.

h. Louis never called a meeting of the Estates General, which benefited him by reducing the power of the nobility.

2. Louis XIV controlled the structure of the government in order to provide himself with maximum power, and by doing so

a. Louis instituted an intendant system that was basically a bureaucracy that would work for the king, and it the bureaucracy aided him in centralizing and extending his rule throughout France.

b. The intendant system consisted of intendants who reported directly to the king; the intendants had no local loyalties in the areas that they were designated to rule.

c. The influence of the nobility was reduced through the intendant system.

d. Officials of the intendant system who criticized Louis’s actions would be arrested.

e. Louis recruited his chief ministers from the middle class, which effectively caused a reduction of the aristocracy’s power.

f. He controlled the peasantry that was about ninety-five percent of the population.

g. Some peasants retained only 20% of their cash crops after paying their landlord, government, and the Church.

h. Louis created the corvee, and the peasants were compelled to work for a period of one month on various public projects, such as constructing roads.

3. The religious policies that Louis enforced throughout France effectively aided him in preserving the idea of “one faith.”

a. Louis established himself as the head of the Gallican Church.

b. Even though he was religious, he did not want the pope to interfere with the political power of the French Church.

c. He revoked the Edict of Nantes by producing the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685. The Huguenots were no longer given the freedom of practicing their religion within France.

d. Approximately 200,000 Huguenots exited France and went to countries such as, England or the Netherlands.

e. Louis endorsed the Jesuits and aided them in persecuting and punishing the Janesists.
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:49 am

Core Worksheet Number 21

A. Thesis: The theory of mercantilism had a significant affect on the domestic and foreign policies of France. This can be seen with the policies of Duke of Sully and Jean Batpiste Colbert, and the results these two individuals actions had on the foreign and domestic polices of France. Duke of Sully, the finance minister during the reign of Henry IV used mercantilism to benefit France. The works of Jean Baptiste Colbert during the reign of Louis XIV allowed France to achieve economic self-sufficiency. The combined efforts of these two individuals eventually led France to becoming a powerful nation, but in the the result was not a fully positive one.

1. Mercantilism greatly influenced Duke of Sully’s domestic and foreign policies regarding France.

a. Sully, France’s finance minister during the reign of Henry IV, granted monopolies in the production of gunpowder and salt. He also motivated

b. He established a company for trade with the Indies in order to enhance trade.

c. He instituted systematic bookkeeping and budgets, in order track of the money and supplies. This greatly organized the system, and allowed for a better tracking of money.

d. The government was the only body that had the permission to operate the mines.

e. Cardinal Richelieu further developed Sully’s economic achievements in further developing mercantilism.

f. He encouraged and promoted agriculture within France.

g. He also urged and advocated the idea of stock-raising.

h. In order to make France a more self-sufficient nation, Duke of Sully worked on improving the transportation systems within France. For example, he began a nation-wide highway system, linking major canals using canals, and constructing a canal to link the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

2. Mercantilism considerably affected Jean Baptiste Colbert’s influence on the domestic and foreign polices of France.

a. He reduced local tariffs that inhibited trade, so that the people of France would buy products created within the country.

b. Colbert increased protective tariffs in order to decrease the competition from foreign merchants.

c. He wanted to halt the outflow of gold to foreign countries; he also advocated the idea that the debtor states should pay them using the bullion.

d. He granted money to the various established industries in order to strengthen them. For example, he gifted the cloth, rug, and tapestry industries with special privileges.

e. He added to the accomplishments of Sully enhancing the strength of the East India Company and West India Company.

f. He reduced the power and privileges of guilds.

g. There was an increased construction of roads and canals that aided France in communication and trade.

3. The contributions of Duke of Sully and Jean Baptise Colbert regarding domestic and foreign polices resulted in a flourishing France that was economically self-sufficient, but in the end the result was not a fully positive one.

a. By 1683, France was Europe’s leading industrial country. It excelled in industries such as textiles, mirrors, lace-making, and foundries for steel manufacturing and firearms.

b. Sully’s works reduced the royal debt, and bettered France’s condition.

c. Under Sully the tax system was adjusted and reformed, and it was made more equitable and efficient. France had a considerable amount

d. Colbert’s works allowed France to develop a powerful merchant marine.

e. However, in the end the wars and other unnecessary expenditures of Louis XIV negated all if the economic gains that had been created by Colbert and Sully.

Core Worksheet Number 22

A Thesis: The polices of Elizabeth I of England and Henry IV of France were considerably successful in following Machiavelli’s suggestion that a ruler should behave both “like a lion” and “like a fox.” This can be seen through Henry IV and Elizabeth I social and religious, political, and economic policies. Regarding social and religious policies Henry and Elizabeth, correctly followed Machiavelli’s suggestion, by instituting religious toleration. Henry and Elizabeth’s works regarding political policies can be used describe them with the characteristics created by Machiavelli, and they both placed political issues ahead of religious principles. The economic policies of Henry and Elizabeth demonstrate that they adequately followed Machiavelli’s advice.

1. The two rulers, Henry IV and Elizabeth I, definitely followed Machiavelli’s advice when they created their social and religious policies.

Henry acted like a fox in many ways when he acted in an adept and clever way.

a. For example, he established the Edict of Nantes that provided the Huguenots with the ability to practice their own faith, which in this case was Calvinism.

b. Henry also guaranteed his people with “a chicken in the pot once a week,” this shows that he cared for his subjects.

Elizabeth also acted like a fox in many ways by making thoughtful and clever decisions.

c. Elizabeth created the Elizabethan statement, which required conformity to the Church of England, but the people were still allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately.

d. She also instituted the Thirty-Nine Articles that defined the creed of the Anglican Church. Even though Thirty-Nine Articles followed Protestant doctrine, they were vague enough to accommodate most of the English people’s except Puritans.

e. Elizabeth behaved similar to a lion when she required everyone to attend church services of the Anglican Church, which if they were absent for they would be fined

f. Henry had a fox like mentality when he converted to Catholicism in order to earn the support of the majority of people within France. This also represents his idea that “Paris was worth a mass.”

2. When considering the political policies of Henry and Elizabeth it can be stated that the followed Machiavelli’s examples.

a. Elizabeth and Henry both were politiques, because they gave more importance and value to the requirements of the country than the religious factors.

b. Henry behaved like an aggressive lion when he took away the powers of the “nobility of the sword” and stated that they could not influence the royal council.

c. He however, acted slyly like a fox by empowering the new nobles, “the nobility of the robe,” by making them high officials in the government and gaining their loyalty.

d. Elizabeth acted like a lion when executing Mary Queen of Scots and removed the threat of a Catholic dynasty forming within England.

e. She also acted aggressively when appearing with armor and a sword during her reign at various points.

3. Through their economic policies, Henry and Elizabeth revealed that they were following the ideas of Machiavelli.

Henry acted like a fox in many ways by effectively instituting his economical policy.

a. Henry appointed the capable, Duke of Sully who managed the finance’s of France for him.

b. Under Sully’s guidance Henry enforced the Paulette that made the nobles pay an annual fee to ensure heredity in their offices.

c. Monopolies were placed on gunpowder and salt.

d. The taxes of the peasants ere decreased.

e. The idea of mercantilism was used by Henry, and he greatly increased exports and decreased exports.

f. Elizabeth also acted like a fox considerably through her economical policies. Elizabeth called on the Parliament ten times in total during her reign in order to raise taxed and enforce her policies.

g. Elizabeth acted like a lion and fox by creating the poor laws. She compelled the peasantry to work and removed idleness, and through her aggressive methods destituteness was reduced within England.

h. She acted more fox like by cleverly enhancing the trade of the country.
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 5:50 am

Core Structure Worksheet 25

A Thesis: “By 1700, it had become evident that Western Europe and Eastern Europe were moving in opposite directions in terms of their basic social structures.” These differences are evident within the nobility, government, and peasantry. The nobility of eastern Europe differentiated in various ways from the nobility of western Europe. The governments (in most cases monarchies) in western and eastern Europe had many differences between each other also. The peasantry of the eastern Europe was oppressed, while the peasantry of western Europe was gradually gaining more rights.

1. The nobility of eastern Europe certainly possessed great differences when compared to the nobility of western Europe.

a. The nobility in eastern Europe had a considerable amount of power over the serfs that was granted to them by the monarch.

b. The legal system was monopolized by the local lords in the eastern Europe so that they could enforce their own laws and rules on the surfs.

c. The lords confiscated peasant lands and imposed heavier labor obligations onto the peasants.

d. The nobility was enrolled in the army in various country’s of eastern Europe, such as Prussia and Russia. The Junkers remained the officer caste within the army in Prussia, and in Russia the nobles were to remain in the army for lifetime.

e. However, the nobility within western Europe had its power reduced with the exception of England due to the Parliament. For example, in France the intendant system was established in order to reduce the influence of the nobility.

f. In eastern Europe absolutism was based on a powerful nobility.

2. The government of eastern Europe greatly differentiated from the government of western Europe.

a. In eastern Europe the kings gave into the demands of the nobility in order to gain their loyalty.

b. In Western Europe the monarchs were not subordinate to national assemblies, with an exception existing in England and the Netherlands.

c. In England and the Netherlands Constitutionalism existed, and no trace of trace of constitutionalism could be seen in Easter Europe. The king was depndant upon the Parliament within England, because the king’s power had been limited by a variety of documents such as the Bill of Rights.

d. Within eastern Europe there was no idea that supported the people’s rights, such as the ideas of constitutionalism had. The atmosphere of eastern Europe was more barbaric and uncivilized. For example, Peter the Great compelled his peasants to work through the great difficulties while constructing his grand Winter Palace that rivaled Versailles. Many peasants lost their lives in the construction of the

e. The absolutism of eastern Europe depended on the powerful nobility.

3. The peasantry in eastern Europe significantly differed from the peasantry of Western Europe, because the peasantry in eastern Europe were more oppressed and were treated as serfs.

a. The peasants were restricted to freely move, and they were tied to the land. The landlords believed in the idea of hereditary serfdom.

b. The rights of the peasants decline further due to bloody Cossack rvolts in Russia, and this further restricted the serfs.

c. In eastern Europe even non-serf peasants were affected, and the term robot was created. In certain regions the peasants were compelled to work 3-4 days of the week without pay for their local landlord.

d. No laws or rights existed within eastern Europe for the oppresses surfs.

e. In Poland land lords were eventually given the power to impose the death penalties.

f. However in western Europe, the peasantry were gaining more rights as seen in Great Britain, with the creation of the Bill of Rights.

Core Structure Worksheet 26

The Tsar Peter the Great sought to reform his society and institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe. Tsar Peter the Great used various militaristic, cultural, and political methods in order to strengthen Russia and its position within Europe. His militaristic reforms included creating a more powerful and modern army within Russia. Culturally and socially he wanted for Russia to become similar to the West. Peter’s political policies allowed him to gain more power over Russia, and he was able to establish an absolutist rule.

1. Peter intensely increased the power of the army and also made it more modern.

a. During Peter’s reign seventy-five percent of the national budget was used to support the army of Russia.

b. Each Russian was forced to send recruits to the Russian army for an enlistment of twenty five years.

c. Peter established royal, military, and artillery academies, and one of his reforms included requiring all of the young male nobles to leave home and pursuit a five year mandatory education.

d. He built a large navy on the Baltic.

e. Be constructed the idea of ranking within the army, and some non-nobles were able to surpass the nobility in ranks.

2. Peter wanted a significant amount of cultural and social reforms within the country of Russia, and eventually was successful at creating these reforms.

a. At a young age he went to western Europe in order to study the culture and technology, and he also took a tour of all of the capitals within Western Europe.

b. He imported considerable amounts of western technicians and craftsmen in order to aid in the building of large factories. By the end of his reign Russia produced a larger amount of iron than England.

c. Peter build St. Petersburg in order to westernize his capital, and also to in order to imitate the grandeur of Versailles. Within this city he created wide an broad avenues that led up to his palace, in order to look as if all power was radiating from his palace that was at the center.

d. In order to giver his people a westernized look he wanted all of is people to shave their beards, and if the people did not comply they were forced to give a beard tax.

e. As a result of his reforms a social gap opened up between the wealthy and the impoverished, which could be seen within St.Petersburg.

3. Peter was able to establish a powerful absolutist rule over Russia, due to his various poltical polices.

a. He ruled by decree and theoretically owed all of the land in the state; nobles and peasants merely served the state.

b. No political bodies exist within Russia, which was a contrasted to Parliament in England.

c. A educational standard was created for the civil servants who were compromised mainly of the nobility.

d. The landowners were expected to serve for their entire life in the either the state’s military, civil service, or court.

e. Peter wanted to replace old Boyar nobility with service nobility that was loyal to the tsar.

f. The Russian secret police efficiently and strictly destroyed the opponents of the state.

Core Structure Worksheet# 27

There were a variety of military, political, and social aspects that accounted for the rise of Prussia between 1640 and 1786. Prussia was acknowledged as the “Sparta of the North” because it was becoming militaristic state. Politically Prussia was well-organized and this aspect partly accounted for its rise. Prussia became a highly disciplined and strict society as a result of the blending of social factors and militarism.

1. The Prussian military became exceedingly powerful, and it aided Prussia in its rise to power.

a. During the time of Fredrick William I eighty percent of the government revenues went toward the military.

b. Fredrick William-The “Great Elector” created a substantial army that Fredrick William I doubled in size. Therefore Prussia had the fourth largest army in all of Europe.

c. The Soldier King was obsessed with tall soldiers that he recruited in to the army, and this provided the army with a more fearsome and powerful look.

d. The Junkers were the officer’s caste in the army for supporting the king’s absolutism, which helped to create organization within the army.

e. As a result of these reforms and addition The Soldier King only once had to participate in a war. This shows that the army was efficient at avoiding war through deterrence. The army was renowned to be extremely powerful, and therefore other nations did not wish to fight against Prussia.

2. Politically Prussia was well developed and this aided the nation in gaining more power.

a. Prussia had the most efficient bureaucracy within Europe.

b. The last of the parliamentary estates and local self government had been removed.

c. Absolute obedience and discipline was required from the civil servants of the Prussia.

d. Some meritocracy did exist within the government, and a few commoners were able to rise to positions of power.

e. There were high levels of taxation, and this supported them in paying for the large army they had. The nobles also had to pay their taxes, and the soldiers served as tax collectors, which enforced the government’s bureaucracy.

3. The social factors of Prussia contained militarism, and as a result society became highly-disciplined.

a. Unquestioning obedience was the highest virtue within the society.

b. Prussia developed into the most militaristic society of modern times.

c. Approximately 1,000 schools were created for the peasant children, and when analyzed this explains that Prussia wanted for its population to prosper.

d. During the time of Frederick I “the Ostentatious” higher encouraged and university was founded. Immigrant scholars were also welcome within Prussia.

e. Even though the rulers were strictly Calvinist religious toleration existed between the Catholics and Jews.

Core Structure Worksheet # 28

A. Thesis: The absolutism that developed within the nations of France, Russia, and Prussia influenced the power and the status of the nobility considerably during the time period of 1650 and 1750. Within France the absolutism deeply undermined the power of the nobility, which for example, can be seem through Louis XIV’s various methods such as the use of Versailles as a pleasure prison. Absolutism within Russia caused the power of the nobility to decline due to the works of monarchs, such as Peter the Great. The power of the nobility in Prussia was also weakened due to the idea of absolutism of the monarch, since the monarch demanded obedience.

1. Within France the absolutism effectively reduced the power of the nobility from 1650-1750.

a. The Intendant syetem which was used by Louis XIV, continued to decrease the power of the nobility, because it used civil servants who reported directly to the king. The intendants were largely middle class or minor nobles.

b. Louis recruited his chief ministers from the the middle class in order to keep the aristocracy removed from the government.

c. Versailles acted as a pleasure prison for the nobility who were forced to reside there for part of the year. This made it possible for Louis to keep an eye on the nobles.

d. The new nobility, the “nobility of the robe,” purchased titles from Louis XIV and in turn they remained loyal to him. This allowed him to exhibit his power over them.

e. Louis never called a meeting of the Estates General, and therefore the nobility was not able to express its idea.

f. Louis XIV said that “I am the state”, and therefore this suggested that sovereignty was embodied within the monarch.

2. The absolutism of Russia decreased the power of the nobility over time period of 165-1750.

a. The tsar owned all the land in the state and the nobles served him.

b. All of the nobles owed lifetime service to the state by either working in the military, civil service, or court.

c. He compelled all of the young male nobles to leave home and pursue a five year mandatory education.

d. The nobles that were members were restricted by the rank system, which caused everybody to start at the same level. Some non-nobles rose to higher positions than the nobles.

e. Peter sought to replace the Boyar nobility with the new service based nobility that was loyal to the tsar.

f. The nobility was compelled to reside within St. Petersburg for the larger portion of the year.

3. As in the other nations, the power of the nobility decreased due to absolutism during this time period of 1650-1750.

a. They monarchy demanded absolute obedience and discipline from civil servants and the other subjects of the state. Unquestioning obedience was the highest virtue within the society. This reduced the power of the nobility.

b. Meritocracy existed and commoners were able to rise above nobles in the society.

c. The Junkers, the nobles, were not exempted from paying taxes.

d. The Junkers supported the king’s absolutism and they were therefore made officers’ caste in the army. The king gained loyalty as a result, and therefore his power increased.

e. The last of the parliamentary estates and local self-government was reduced.

f. Frederick William used the excuse of war in order to lower the power of the nobility. He created a permanent standing army, and he also introduced the idea of taxation without the nobilities consent. Thus the nobility’s power was significantly reduced.
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PostSubject: THANKS   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 6:41 am

Thanks Ahsan and Gene. You guys are really helpful right now. And does the curve apply to FRQs, or are 0s=0;1s=70;2s=74;3s=77;4s=80... still?

Once again, thanks Omar
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyMon Oct 12, 2009 6:48 am

Thanks so much for this. I was just in the process of rewriting every single one, but these are actually worth studying.
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptyTue Oct 13, 2009 12:09 am

You know, you could've just posted each one separately in a new topic... but this works! Awesome job people!

Martin Luther overlooked this when he was blabbing about salvation through faith alone...
14 What does it profit, my brethren, if a man says he has faith but has not works? Can his faith save him? 17... faith by itself, if it has no works, is dead. 21 Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he offered his son Isaac upon the altar? 23...the scripture was fulfilled... 26 For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, so faith apart from works is dead.
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PostSubject: Re: Last minute Help   Last minute Help EmptySat Dec 12, 2009 4:16 am

Thanks these are alot of help,
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