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 Core Structure Worksheets Unit 5/6

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Anna.bcde
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PostSubject: Core Structure Worksheets Unit 5/6   Mon Nov 30, 2009 12:28 pm

These only have the basic outline, no clincher sentences or concluding statements.

Not all of them are here. The rest will be posted tomorrow.







41. “The essential cause of the French Revolution was the
collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.” Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1789. (1984 #5)


Thesis: Some historians believe that the essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenches aristocracy defending its privileges. Based on recent research, most modern historians believe that this outdated view is invalid for three reasons. First, it would imply that the bourgeoisie and the nobles are two distinct, separate groups, united against one another, which is a false assumption. Secondly, the Estates General proved that the bourgeoisie and the nobility were actually united in their interests and grievances. Finally, this theory does not make sense because it undermines the obvious influence of the poor working class on the revolution.

  • 1. This theory regarding the essential cause of the French Revolution is false, because it assumes that the bourgeoisie and the nobles are two distinct, separate groups, united against one another, and this is completely untrue.

    • a. The nobility was deeply divided among itself. For example, higher nobles and
      lower nobles were separated by wealth, education, and world views.
    • b. The bourgeoisie was plagued with internal rivalries as well. For instance, wealthy financiers and local lawyers definitely were not allied with one another.
    • Also, the two groups were not clearly separate, because members of the bourgeoisie could easily cross over and become a noble by purchasing a title and becoming a Noble of the Robe.
    • Another reason the two groups cannot be seen as separate is that both groups were educated and literate and therefore were reading the works of Enlightenment writers, giving them the same ideas, values, and interests.

  • 2. Furthermore, the theory is invalid because the nobility and the bourgeoisie showed that their interests were clearly united during the Estates General.

    • a. Both estates wanted a constitutional monarchy.
    • b. Both estates wanted the estates general to meet regularly.
    • c. Both estates agreed that individual liberties must be guaranteed by law.
    • d. Both estates demanded that the condition of the parish priests needed to be
      improved.
    • e. Both estates wanted the abolition of internal trade barriers.

  • 3. Finally, the theory does not make sense because it focuses on the bourgeoisie and nobility and undermines the undeniable influence of the poor working classes.

    • a. The urban poor initiated the revolution by storming the Bastille.
    • b. The poor fish market women participated in the revolution by marching to Versailles in search of Marie Antoinette.
    • c. The urban poor took part in the September Massacres, raiding prisons and attacking the prisoners in fear that they were plotting to put down the revolution.
    • d. The sans-culottes allied with the Mountains to overpower the Girondins during the National Convention.



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PostSubject: Re: Core Structure Worksheets Unit 5/6   Mon Nov 30, 2009 12:37 pm

43. “Political leaders committed to radical or extremist goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher values.” Support or refute this statement with reference to the political and cultural policies of Robespierre during the French Revolution.
(1989 #4)


Thesis: It can be said that political leaders committed to radical or extremist goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher values. This is definitely the case with Robespierre, as can be seen in his political, economical, and cultural policies.

  • 1. Robespierre’s political policies show how he exerted authoritarian control in the name of higher values.

    • a. Under the committee of public safety, the people were constantly under the close surveillance of spies to prevent any criminal activity.
    • b. Robespierre also established the Law of Suspect by which any alleged enemy of the state could be arbitrarily executed without any evidence.
    • c. About 40,000 people throughout France either died in prison or were executed, often by the guillotine; the terror eventually became a political tool and was not directed at any class in particular.
    • d. However, Robespierre argued that all of this terror was necessary, during a time of revolution, to create a Republic of Virtue.

  • 2. Robespierre’s established strict economic policies in attempt to feed the poor, starving masses of France.

    • a. Robespierre created the Law of Maximum, a planned economy to respond to food shortages and related economic problems.
    • b. Robespierre would set maximum allowable prices, fixed in paper assignats, for bread and other key products.
    • c. Robespierre introduced rationing to ensure that bread was shared fairly.
    • d. The government nationalized many small workshops and requisitioned raw materials and grain from peasants.

  • 3. Robespierre also established many cultural policies that show his use of dictatorship in the name of higher values.

    • a. Robespierre introduced the Cult of the Supreme Being in attempt to completely secularize French culture and eliminate the Catholic Church as a threat
      to his power and control of the nation.
    • b. The Notre Dame Cathedral was converted into the Temple of Reason, another attempt to secularize French culture.
    • c. Robespierre also replaced the Christian calendar with a Revolutionary calendar, with new names for months such as Thermidor.
    • d. The formal word “you” of the nobility was abolished in favor of the friendlier word “thou.”
    • e. People were required to address each other solely as "Citizen" rather than the formal Madame, Mademoiselle, or Monsieur of the past.
    • f. Clothing fashions and hairstyles were drastically changed to reflect the new revolutionary culture and erase any remnants of the old order.
    • g. Names of streets and of children were changed. For example, “Dandelion” was a popular name for girls.



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PostSubject: Re: Core Structure Worksheets Unit 5/6   Mon Nov 30, 2009 12:43 pm

44. Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 revolution. Asses the extent to which their aspirations were achieved in the period from the meeting of Estates-General (May 1789) to their declaration of the republic (September 1792). (1996 #6)

Thesis: On the eve of the 1789 French Revolution, the country was divided into three major social groups with different aspirations—the rich and well-off, the bourgeoisie, and the poor working class. Between the meeting of the Estates-General and the declaration of the republic, these three groups achieved varying degrees of success in their aspirations.


  • 1. A small minority of France was the upper class, made up of nobles and high clergymen. These comfortable members of society aspired to overthrow the absolute monarchist government and gain power, and they were extremely successful in this aspiration.

    • a. At the beginning of the revolution, King Louis XVI and the royal family were forced to relocate from their palace in Versailles to be prisoners in the Tuileries Palace under the watchful eye of the people.
    • b. King Louis XVI lost even more power when he was arrested by his own people during the Flight to Varennes and taken back to Paris.
    • c. After the Flight to Varennes, the monarchy declined further when Louis XVI was forced to approve the Declaration of Rights of Man and of Citizen, making France a constitutional monarchy.
    • d. The monarchy was finished when France was declared a republic.
    • e. When King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed by the guillotine, it was clear that the nobility was undoubtedly victorious in destroying the absolute monarchy and gaining power for themselves.



  • 2.The second social group was the middle class, also known as the bourgeoisie, which desired a government with Enlightenment ideals. The bourgeoisie was also relatively successful up until the declaration of the republic.

    • a. In
      the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen, all “natural rights”
      including life, liberty, and property are guaranteed, which was an idea of
      Enlightenment thinker, John Locke.
    • b. The Declaration also declares that all men are equal before the law, abolishing the nobility and giving everyone the title of “Citizen”, another idea of Locke.
    • c. During the revolution, feudalism and serfdom were both abolished, which was an Enlightenment ideal.
    • d. Protestants, Jews, and agnostics could legally take part in the elections based on citizenship and property qualifications under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, creating a degree of religious toleration.



  • 3. The third and final social group was the poor working class, which included parish priests, urban workers, and agrarian peasants, all of whom carried the nation’s tax burden and primarily had money-related concerns. They desired economic reform. This group was also somewhat successful in its aspirations.

    • a. Under the Declaration of Rights of Man and of Citizen, the sloppy system of weights and measures was replaced with a more efficient system of measurement, the metric system.
    • b. Monopolies were also abolished, creating lower prices.
    • c. Church land was sold to pay off national debt, and much of it was purchased by peasants at reasonable prices.
    • d. Internal tariffs were abolished, allowing trade to flow freely between cities.
    • e. Assignats became the new paper currency
    • f. However, the Le Chapelier Law outlawed strikes, workers
      coalitions, and assemblies, which hurt the peasants.



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PostSubject: Re: Core Structure Worksheets Unit 5/6   Mon Nov 30, 2009 1:33 pm

46a. Napoleon I is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot. Evaluate this assessment in terms of Napoleon I’s policies and accomplishments. Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism in your answer. (1981 #4)

Thesis: Napolean I was, in some ways, the greatest enlightened despot –an absolute ruler who adheres to the ideals of the Enlightenment and acts in the interests of the people- but in other ways, he was just a ruthless dictator. Napolean’s Civil Code shows how he was somewhat an enlightened despot. Napolean’s Concordat of 1801 also demonstrates his enlightened ideals. However, Napolean’s police state shows how he was a ruthless dictator.


  • 1.The Napoleonic Code is an example of how Napolean I ruled with ideals of the Enlightenment.

    • a. The Napoleonic Code was a single codified set of laws that was established throughout all of France, replacing the regional laws that often conflicted with each other.
    • b. Napoleon’s code also declared that all men were equal before the law—abolishing nobles, estates, tax exemptions, etc.
    • c. Furthermore, this civil code guaranteed property rights for all male citizens.
    • d. Under the Napoleonic Code, serfdom was abolished.

  • 2.The Concordat of 1801 is another demonstration of Napolean’s enlightened despotism.

    • a. The Concordat granted religious toleration to Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and Atheists.
    • b. The Concordat restored the old Christian Calendar, acting in the interest of all Christians.
    • c. The Concordat also restored the refractory clergy, appealing to Catholics.
    • d. Finally, to prove that Catholicism was not the official religion of France, Napolean placed Protestant ministers of all denominations on the state payroll.

  • 1. However, Napolean did have his shortcomings and was, at times, a ruthless dictator.

    • 2. Napolean’s police state put the people under constant surveillance by secret spies.
    • 3. After 1810, possible traitors to the state were put in prison.
    • 4. By 1814, the prisons were filled with 2,500 traitors.
    • 5. Napolean also used his military to ruthlessly put down oppositions, particularly guerillas in the west.
    • 6. Most notoriously, Napolean executed a Bourbon, the duke of Enghien, for allegedly plotting against the state, even though there was no evidence.




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PostSubject: Re: Core Structure Worksheets Unit 5/6   Mon Nov 30, 2009 2:12 pm

56b. “Napoleon was a child of the Enlightenment.” Assess the validity of the statement. Use examples referring both to specific aspects of the Enlightenment and to Napoleon’s policies and attitudes. (1992#5)

Thesis: Napolean was a child of the Enlightenment. This
statement is mostly valid, as can be seen in Napolean’s policies and attitudes.Napolean uses the Enlightenment ideas of John Locke and Voltaire in his reforms. Like Locke, Napolean clearly valued natural rights and equality before the law. Similar to Voltaire, Napolean believed in religious tolerance toward all people. On the other hand, Napoleon’s economic reforms go against Adam Smith’s idea of Laissez Faire.

  • 1. Napolean shared many ideas with John Locke, who believed that all men were equal before the law and should be guaranteed certain natural rights.

    • a. In the Napoleonic Code, Napolean guarantees equality before the law for all people, abolishing the nobility and the estates.
    • b. The Napoleonic Code also gives all male citizens the right to property.
    • c. Napoleon established a meritocracy, allowing equal opportunities to all free men,
      based on talent—not status or hereditary birthright.
    • d. Napolean rigorously reformed the educational system and made it available to the masses, showing that he agreed with Locke’s idea of Tabula Rasa, which stated that the human mind was a blank slate and therefore education was crucial.

  • 1. Napolean also agreed with Voltaire, who despised absolute truth and organized religion, in that religious toleration should be granted to all.

    • a. Napolean extended religious toleration to all Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and even Atheists.
    • b. Napolean returned the right to worship in public to Catholics.
    • c. Napolean placed Protestant ministers of all denominations on the state payroll,
      proving that he did not favor Catholicism.
    • d. Religious freedom was guaranteed as a natural right in the Napoleonic Code.

  • 3. However, Napolean made many economic reforms toward a hands-on economy that did not agree with Adam Smith, who believed that the government should should not participate in domestic economic affairs at all.

    • a. Napoleon created a national bank under government control, the Bank of France, to serve in economic affairs.
    • b. Napolean provided low food prices that the people could afford.
    • c. Napolean made an effort to increase employment.
    • d. Under Napolean’s rule, workers were not allowed to form guilds or trade unions.

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